Aims: To study the effect of microbial community of the rabbit does as influenced by dietary factors, on the development of the gut microbiota of their litters. Methods and Results: Twenty-four lactating does were given a diet unsupplemented (NAB) or with 100 ppm of bacitracin (BAC) or tiamulin (TIA) to modify their digestive microbiota. Litters were adjusted to six pups. In Trial 1, four does per diet milked their own six pups. In Trial 2, two does per diet nursed three of their pups and three fostered from the doe given the same diet. In Trial 3, two does on each diet nursed three of their pups and three fostered from another doe fed on another diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of the litter microbiota showed that the effect of the milking mother was greater than the influence of the biological mother. TIA had a strong effect on the bacterial profile even prevailing over that of the milking mother, in contrast to BAC. Conclusions: Nursing mother microbiota plays an important role over that of the litter. Caecal colonization that occurs during the lactation process prevailed over that during the partum. Significance and Impact of the Study: Manipulation of the mother's microbiota may help for adaptation of the litter microbial community against pathologic digestive processes.