The four types of Welsh YN

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This paper discusses and categorises the various medieval and modern Welsh prepositions and particles yn and the initial mutations that follow them. It investigates possible manuscript variants such as Old Welsh int and it and Middle Welsh y, and examines variations in mutation. Historical explanations are suggested, including a new explanation of the absence of mutation in the productive yn + verbal noun construction, which is argued to have spread from the construction in which possessive pronouns between yn and the verbal nouns of intransitive stative verbs prevented yn from mutating the verbal nouns
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-304
Number of pages19
JournalTransactions of the Philological Society
Issue number3
Early online date17 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2015


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