The Impact of the Extreme Amazonian Flood Season on the Incidence of Viral Gastroenteritis Cases

Carmen Vieira, Adriana de Abreu Corrêa, Michelle Silva de Jesus, Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz, Peter Wyn-Jones, David Kay, Mônica Simões Rocha, Marize Pereira Miagostovich

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6 Citations (SciVal)


During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses. Human adenoviruses, group A rotaviruses and genogroup II noroviruses were detected in 100, 77.5 and 27.5% of the samples, respectively, in concentrations of 103–106 GC/L. All samples were compliant with local bacteriological standards. HAdV2 and 41 and RVA G2, P[6], and P[8] were characterised. Astroviruses, sapoviruses, genogroup IV noroviruses, klasseviruses, bocaviruses and aichiviruses were not detected. Statistical analyses showed correlations between river stage level and reported gastroenteritis cases and, also, significant differences between virus concentrations during this extreme event when compared with normal dry seasons and previous flood seasons of the Negro River. These findings suggest an association between the extreme flood experienced and gastrointestinal cases in the affected areas providing circumstantial evidence of causality between the elevations in enteric viruses in surface waters and reported illness.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
Issue number4
Early online date03 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jun 2017


  • Amazon
  • enteric viruses
  • flood
  • Negro River
  • qPCR


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