The responding and ecological contribution of biofilm-leaves of submerged macrophytes on phenanthrene dissipation in sediments

Zhenhua Zhao, Zhirui Qin, Liling Xia, Dan Zhang, Sara Mela, Yong Li

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The bacterial communities and ecological contribution of biofilm-leaves of the Vallisneria natans (VN), Hydrilla verticillata (HV) and artificial plant (AP) settled in sediments with different polluted levels of phenanthrene were investigated by high-throughput sequencing in different growth periods. There was no significant difference among the detected Alpha diversity indices based on three classification, attached surface, spiking concentration and incubation time. While Beta diversity analysis assessed by PCoA on operational taxonomic units (OTU) indicated that bacterial community structures were significantly influenced in order of attached surface > incubation time > spiking concentration of phenanthrene in sediment. Moreover, the results of hierarchical dendrograms and heat maps at genus level were consistent with PCoA analysis. We speculated that the weak influence of phenanthrene spiking concentration in sediment might be related to lower concentration and smaller concentration gradient of phenanthrene in leaves. Meanwhile, difference analysis suggested that attached surface was inclined to influence the rare genera up to significant level than incubation time. In general, the results proved that phenanthrene concentrations, submerged macrophytes categories and incubation time did influence the bacterial community of biofilm-leaves. In turn, results also showed a non-negligible ecological contribution of biofilm-leaves in dissipating the phenanthrene in sediments (>13.2%–17.1%) in contrast with rhizosphere remediation (2.5%–3.2% for HV and 9.9%–10.6% for VN).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-365
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Early online date12 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2019


  • phenanthrene bioremediation
  • submerged macrophyte
  • biofilm-leaf
  • bacterial community
  • high-throughput sequencing
  • Biofilm-leaf
  • High-throughput sequencing
  • Submerged macrophyte
  • Phenanthrene bioremediation
  • Bacterial community
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Plant Leaves/metabolism
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena
  • Rhizosphere
  • Biofilms
  • Phenanthrenes/metabolism
  • Geologic Sediments/chemistry
  • Hydrocharitaceae/metabolism


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