The Transcriptional Adaptor Protein ADA3a Modulates Flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana

Stylianos Poulios, Despoina Dadarou, Maxim Gavriilidis, Niki Mougiou, Nestoras Kargios, Vasileia Maliori, Amy T. Hark, John H. Doonan, Konstantinos E. Vlachonasios

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Histone acetylation is directly related to gene expression. In yeast, the acetyltransferase general control nonderepressible-5 (GCN5) targets histone H3 and associates with transcriptional co-activators alteration/deficiency in activation-2 (ADA2) and alteration/deficiency in activation-3 (ADA3) in complexes like SAGA. Arabidopsis thaliana has two genes encoding proteins, designated ADA3a and ADA3b, that correspond to yeast ADA3. We investigated the role of ADA3a and ADA3b in regulating gene expression during flowering time. Specifically, we found that knock out mutants ada3a-2 and the double mutant ada3a-2 ada3b-2 lead to early flowering compared to the wild type plants under long day (LD) conditions and after moving plants from short days to LD. Consistent with ADA3a being a repressor of floral initiation, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression was increased in ada3a mutants. In contrast, other genes involved in multiple pathways leading to floral transition, including FT repressors, players in GA signaling, and members of the SPL transcriptional factors, displayed reduced expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that ADA3a affects the histone H3K14 acetylation levels in SPL3, SPL5, RGA, GAI, and SMZ loci. In conclusion, ADA3a is involved in floral induction through a GCN5-containing complex that acetylates histone H3 in the chromatin of flowering related genes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number904
Number of pages17
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2021


  • ADA2
  • ADA3
  • FT
  • Flowering
  • GCN5
  • Gene expression
  • H3K14Ac
  • Histone acetylation
  • SPL
  • Nuclear Proteins/chemistry
  • Arabidopsis/genetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Histones/metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry
  • Protein Domains
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Acetylation
  • Mutation/genetics
  • Genome, Plant
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Phenotype
  • Epistasis, Genetic
  • Protein Binding
  • Flowers/genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial/genetics


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